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Critical-sized bone defects are a reconstructive challenge, particularly in the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) skeleton. The "gold standard" of autologous bone grafting has been the work horse of reconstruction in both congenital and acquired defects of CMF skeleton. Autologous bone has the proper balance of the protein (or organic) matrix and mineral components with no immune response. Organic and mineral adjuncts exist that offer varying degrees of osteogenic, osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteostimulative properties needed for treatment of critical-sized defects. In this review, we discuss the various mostly organic and mostly mineral bone graft substitutes available for autologous bone grafting. Primarily organic bone graft substitutes/enhancers, including bone morphogenic protein, platelet-rich plasma, and other growth factors, have been utilized to support de novo bone growth in setting of critical-sized bone defects. Primarily mineral options, including various calcium salt formulation (calcium sulfate/phosphate/apatite) and bioactive glasses have been long utilized for their similar composition to bone. Yet, a bone graft substitute that can supplant autologous bone grafting is still elusive. However, case-specific utilization of bone graft substitutes offers a wider array of reconstructive options. Thieme. All rights reserved.


Dhruv Patel, Sherard A Tatum. Bone Graft Substitutes and Enhancement in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery. Facial plastic surgery : FPS. 2023 Oct;39(5):556-563

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PMID: 37473765

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