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Phosphorodiamidate morpholinos (PMOs) are known as premier gene knockdown tools in developmental biology. PMOs are usually 25 nucleo-base-long morpholino subunits with a neutral phosphorodiamidate linkage. PMOs work via a steric blocking mechanism and are stable towards nucleases' inside cells. PMOs are usually synthesized using phosphoramidate P(V) chemistry. In this review, we will discuss the synthesis of PMOs, phosphoroamidate morpholinos (MO), and thiophosphoramidate morpholinos (TMO).


Sibasish Paul, Marvin H Caruthers. Synthesis of Backbone-Modified Morpholino Oligonucleotides Using Phosphoramidite Chemistry. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2023 Jul 13;28(14)

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PMID: 37513252

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