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    To investigate variations regarding the formation and course of the sural nerve (SN). We dissected 60 formalin-fixed Brazilian fetuses (n = 120 lower limbs) aged from the 16th to 34th weeks of gestational age. Three incisions were made in the leg to expose the SN, and the gastrocnemius muscle was retracted to investigate the SN course. Statistical analyses regarding laterality and sex were performed using the Chi-square test. Eight SN formation patterns were classified after analysis. Type 4 (in which the SN is formed by the union of the MSCN with the LSCN) was the most common SN formation pattern. Although there was no statistical association between the formation patterns and the lower limb laterality (p = 0.9725), there was as to sex (p = 0.03973), indicating an association between anatomical variation and sex. The site of branch joining was in the distal leg most time (53.75%). In all lower limbs, the SN or its branches crossed from the medial aspect of the leg to the lateral margin of the calcaneal tendon (CT). Most often, the SN is formed by joining the MSCN and the LSCN in the distal leg. The SN or its branches ran close to the saphenous vein, crossed the CT from medial to lateral, and distributed around the lateral malleolus. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Diogo Costa Garção, Maria Stephany de Souza Paiva, Karolaine Santos Corcinio. Variations in sural nerve formation and course in fetuses. Neurosurgical review. 2023 Jul 31;46(1):189

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    PMID: 37522997

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