Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • china (3)
  • flame retardants (12)
  • flow (1)
  • hydrolysis (3)
  • organophosphates (2)
  • tcep (1)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are emerging environmental pollutants that cause endocrine disruption, neurotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity. Sewage sludge is an important source of tri-OPFRs that are released into the environment. The occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk of OPFRs in the full-scale "Cambi® thermal hydrolysis (TH) + advanced anaerobic digestion (AAD) + plate-frame pressure filtration" sludge treatment process is closely related to the application of sewage sludge. We tested sludge samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China. Nine tri-OPFRs were detected in the sludge samples collected at different treatment units during four seasons. The ΣOPFRs decreased from 1,742.65-2,579.68 ng/g to 971.48-1,702.22 ng/g. The mass flow of tri-OPFRs in treated sludge decreased by 61.4%, 48.9%, 42.4%, and 63.9% in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively, effectively reducing the corresponding ecological risk. The ecological risk of tri-OPFRs in sludge in forestland utilization mainly lies in chlorinated tri-OPFRs, especially TCPP and TCEP. No >42.20 t/hm2 of sludge could be used continuously for one year to prevent tri-OPFRs from exceeding the low ecological risk level, indicating that the current commonly applied proportion of sludge (1.6-30 t/hm2) will likely not raise the ecological risk of tri-OPFRs. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Yuhui Zhang, Bing Zhao, Qian Chen, Fenfen Zhu, Jiawei Wang, Xingmin Fu, Tiantian Zhou. Fate of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the "Cambi® TH + AAD" of sludge in a WWTP in Beijing, China. Waste management (New York, N.Y.). 2023 Sep 01;169:363-373

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 37523947

    View Full Text