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Goat warble fly infestation (GWFI) is an economically important myiasis caused by larvae of Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera, Oestridae), prevalent in countries of the Mediterranean Basin and Indian subcontinent. GWFI is characterized by the presence of subcutaneous warbles at the lumbar and sacral region of dorsum in the infested animal. The early larval instars (L1 and L2) remain inaccessible to physical detection due to their small size and subcutaneous presence thus causing hindrance in the diagnosis. The objective of present study was to develop a field applicable early diagnostic intervention for GWFI monitoring and prophylactic management for effective control of the disease. Recombinant Hypodermin C (rHyC) antigen of P. silenus was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein was used for optimizing dot-ELISA in a checkerboard titration using goat warble fly infested serum as known positive. The optimized assay was further tested for lower temperature (18°C) and incubation time (30 min). The optimized assay was assessed for inter-rater reliability and field samples. The optimized conditions require 188 ng of protein/dot, 1:800 dilution of serum sample, 1:4000 dilution of anti-goat IgG conjugate and 5% skim milk powder in phosphate buffer saline as blocking buffer. The assay was found to have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.3% and 95.8%, respectively. The inter-rater reliability of dot ELISA with rHyC indirect ELISA was found to be almost perfect with a Cohen's kappa index of 0.973. Further testing at ambient temperature (18°C) and shorter incubation steps (30 min) supported suitability of the assay for field diagnosis of GWFI. The present study provides the first report of a sensitive and specific dot-ELISA for early diagnosis of GWFI which is rapid and cost effective. The test may provide an effective field applicable tool for sustainable control of GWFI. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Vikas Yadav, Shafiya Imtiaz Rafiqi, Anish Yadav, Anand Kushwaha, Rajesh Godara, Rajesh Katoch, Rosario Panadero-Fontán. Dot-ELISA based on recombinant Hypodermin C of Przhevalskiana silenus for field diagnosis of goat warble fly infestation. Parasite immunology. 2023 Oct;45(10):e13007

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PMID: 37524537

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