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In this review, we aim to delve into the existing literature, seeking to uncover the mechanisms, investigate the electrocardiographic changes, and examine the treatment methods of various cardiac arrhythmias that occur after administration of the COVID-19 vaccine. A global survey has exposed an incidence of arrhythmia in 18.27% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, any type of COVID-19 vaccine - be it mRNA, adenovirus vector, whole inactivated, or protein subunit - appears to instigate cardiac arrhythmias. Among the cardiac adverse events reported post-COVID-19 vaccination, myocarditis emerges as the most common and is thought to be a potential cause of bradyarrhythmia. When a patient post-COVID-19 vaccination presents a suspicion of cardiac involvement, clinicians should perform a comprehensive history and physical examination, measure electrolyte levels, conduct ECG, and carry out necessary imaging studies. In our extensive literature search, we uncovered various potential mechanisms that might lead to cardiac conduction abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction in patients who have received the COVID-19 vaccine. These mechanisms encompass direct viral invasion through molecular mimicry/spike (S) protein production, an escalated inflammatory response, hypoxia, myocardial cell death, and the eventual scar/fibrosis. They correspond to a range of conditions including atrial tachyarrhythmias, bradyarrhythmia, ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, and the frequently occurring myocarditis. For treating these COVID-19 vaccination-induced arrhythmias, we should incorporate general treatment strategies, similar to those applied to arrhythmias from other causes. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Bavithra Pari, Akhilesh Babbili, Ayeesha Kattubadi, Anuj Thakre, Sahithreddy Thotamgari, Rakesh Gopinathannair, Brian Olshansky, Paari Dominic. COVID-19 Vaccination and Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Review. Current cardiology reports. 2023 Sep;25(9):925-940

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PMID: 37530946

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