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Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major cells which play a pivotal role in liver fibrosis. During injury, extracellular stimulators can induce HSCs transdifferentiated into active form. Phloretin showed its ability to protect the liver from injury, so in this research we would like to investigate the effect of phloretin on succinate-induced HSCs activation in vitro and liver fibrosis in vivo study. In in vitro, succinate was used to induce HSCs activation, and then the effect of phloretin on activated HSCs was examined. In in vivo, succinate was used to generated liver fibrosis in mouse and phloretin co-treated to check its protection on the liver. Phloretin can reduce the increase of fibrogenic markers and inhibits the proliferation, migration, and contraction caused by succinate in in vitro experiments. Moreover, an upregulation of proteins associated with aerobic glycolysis occurred during the activation of HSCs, which was attenuated by phloretin treatment. In in vivo experiments, intraperitoneal injection of phloretin decreased expression of fibrotic and glycolytic markers in the livers of mice with sodium succinate diet-induced liver fibrosis. These results suggest that aerobic glycolysis plays critical role in activation of HSCs and succinate can induce liver fibrosis in mice, whereas phloretin has therapeutic potential for treating hepatic fibrosis. Intraperitoneal injection of phloretin attenuated succinate-induced hepatic fibrosis and alleviates the succinate-induced HSCs activation.


Cong Thuc Le, Giang Nguyen, So Young Park, Hanh Nguyen Dong, Yun Kyung Cho, Jae-Ho Lee, Seung-Soon Im, Dae-Hee Choi, Eun-Hee Cho. Phloretin Ameliorates Succinate-Induced Liver Fibrosis by Regulating Hepatic Stellate Cells. Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea). 2023 Aug;38(4):395-405

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PMID: 37533177

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