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The limited endogenous regenerative capacity of the human heart renders cardiovascular diseases a major health threat, thus motivating intense research on in vitro heart cell generation and cell replacement therapies. However, so far, in vitro-generated cardiomyocytes share a rather fetal phenotype, limiting their utility for drug testing and cell-based heart repair. Various strategies to foster cellular maturation provide some success, but fully matured cardiomyocytes are still to be achieved. Today, several hormones are recognized for their effects on cardiomyocyte proliferation, differentiation, and function. Here, we will discuss how the endocrine system impacts cardiomyocyte maturation. After detailing which features characterize a mature phenotype, we will contemplate hormones most promising to induce such a phenotype, the routes of their action, and experimental evidence for their significance in this process. Due to their pleiotropic effects, hormones might be not only valuable to improve in vitro heart cell generation but also beneficial for in vivo heart regeneration. Accordingly, we will also contemplate how the presented hormones might be exploited for hormone-based regenerative therapies. © 2023. The Author(s).


Anne-Marie Galow, Julia Brenmoehl, Andreas Hoeflich. Synergistic effects of hormones on structural and functional maturation of cardiomyocytes and implications for heart regeneration. Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS. 2023 Aug 05;80(8):240

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PMID: 37541969

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