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    The mechanisms underlying the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), an aggressive PCa variant, are largely unclear. Two prominent NEPC phenotypes are elevated NE marker expression and heightened angiogenesis. Identifying the still elusive direct molecular links connecting angiogenesis and neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) is crucial for our understanding and targeting of NEPC. Here we found that histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), whose role in NEPC has not been reported, is one of the most upregulated epigenetic regulators in NEPC. HDAC2 promotes both NED and angiogenesis. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3), also upregulated in NEPC, is a critical promoter for both phenotypes too. Of note, GRK3 phosphorylates HDAC2 at S394, which enhances HDAC2's epigenetic repression of potent anti-angiogenic factor Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) and master NE-repressor RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST). Intriguingly, REST suppresses angiogenesis while TSP1 suppresses NE marker expression in PCa cells, indicative of their novel functions and their synergy in cross-repressing the two phenotypes. Furthermore, the GRK3-HDAC2 pathway is activated by androgen deprivation therapy and hypoxia, both known to promote NED and angiogenesis in PCa. These results indicate that NED and angiogenesis converge on GRK3-enhanced HDAC2 suppression of REST and TSP1, which constitutes a key missing link between two prominent phenotypes of NEPC. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Samira Naderinezhad, Guoliang Zhang, Zheng Wang, Dayong Zheng, Mohit Hulsurkar, Michael Bakhoum, Ning Su, Han Yang, Tao Shen, Wenliang Li. A novel GRK3-HDAC2 regulatory pathway is a key direct link between neuroendocrine differentiation and angiogenesis in prostate cancer progression. Cancer letters. 2023 Sep 01;571:216333

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    PMID: 37543278

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