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The prediction of the drug-target affinity (DTA) plays an important role in evaluating molecular druggability. Although deep learning-based models for DTA prediction have been extensively attempted, there are rare reports on multimodal models that leverage various fusion strategies to exploit heterogeneous information from multiple different modalities of drugs and targets. In this study, we proposed a multimodal deep model named MMDTA, which integrated the heterogeneous information from various modalities of drugs and targets using a hybrid fusion strategy to enhance DTA prediction. To achieve this, MMDTA first employed convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and graph convolutional networks (GCNs) to extract diverse heterogeneous information from the sequences and structures of drugs and targets. It then utilized a hybrid fusion strategy to combine and complement the extracted heterogeneous information, resulting in the fused modal information for predicting drug-target affinity through the fully connected (FC) layers. Experimental results demonstrated that MMDTA outperformed the competitive state-of-the-art deep learning models on the widely used benchmark data sets, particularly with a significantly improved key evaluation metric, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Furthermore, MMDTA exhibited excellent generalization and practical application performance on multiple different data sets. These findings highlighted MMDTA's accuracy and reliability in predicting the drug-target binding affinity. For researchers interested in the source data and code, they are accessible at


Kai-Yang Zhong, Meng-Liang Wen, Fan-Fang Meng, Xin Li, Bei Jiang, Xin Zeng, Yi Li. MMDTA: A Multimodal Deep Model for Drug-Target Affinity with a Hybrid Fusion Strategy. Journal of chemical information and modeling. 2024 Apr 08;64(7):2878-2888

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PMID: 37610162

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