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    Polyamines (PAs) contribute to diverse plant processes, environmental interaction, and stress responses. In citrus, the mechanism underlying the biosynthesis of polyamines is poorly understood. The present study aims to identify the biosynthesis of PA gene family members in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) and investigate their response against various stresses. The identified biosynthesis of PA genes in C. unshiu showed clustering in six groups, i.e., SPMS, SPDS, ACL5, ADC, ODC, and SAMDC. Syntenic analysis revealed that segmental duplication was prevalent among the biosynthesis of PA genes compared to tandem duplication. Thus, it might be the main reason for diversity in the gene family in C. unshiu. Almost all biosynthesis of PA gene family members in C. unshiu showed syntenic blocks in the genome of Arabidopsis, Citrus sinensis, Poncirus trifoliata, and Citrus reticulata. Analysis of Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) indicated the occurrence of hormones, light, defense, and environmental stress responses as well as the development and other plant mechanisms-related elements in the upstream sequence of the biosynthesis of PA genes. Expression profiling revealed that the biosynthesis of PA gene expression modulates in different organs during various developmental stages and stress in C. unshiu. This information will provide a deep understanding of genomic information and its expression in multiple tissues to better understand its potential application in functional genomics.


    Saleha Sadiq, Mujahid Hussain, Shahid Iqbal, Muhammad Shafiq, Rashad Mukhtar Balal, Mahmoud F Seleiman, John Chater, Muhammad Adnan Shahid. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of the Biosynthesis of the Polyamine Gene Family in Citrus unshiu. Genes. 2023 Jul 26;14(8)

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    PMID: 37628578

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