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In aquatic ecosystems, arsenate (As(V)) and lead (Pb(II)) frequently coexist but their joint toxicity on microalgae remains unknown. In this study, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was exposed to various levels of combined As(V) and Pb(II) treatments. The cell growth, respiration, pigment synthesis, polysaccharides and protein secretion as well as As speciation of C. reinhardtii were analyzed. The low-level coexistence of As(V) and Pb(II) had a stimulatory effect, as indicated by enhanced cell proliferation. In the middle-level coexistence, the cells resisted the toxicity by significant increasing protein secretion. Under high-level coexistence, the presence of Pb(II) inhibited the efflux of As and caused the decline of cell numbers and occurrence of cell lysis, indicating that the interaction mode between As(V) and Pb(II) switched to synergistic. Taken together, the above findings may deepen the understanding of detoxification mechanisms of algae upon exposure to combined metal(loid)s in aqueous environments. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Danqing Sun, Zhongquan Jiang, Hangqi Yu, Zhen Li, Chunhua Zhang, Ying Ge. Assessment of Joint Toxicity of Arsenate and Lead by Multiple Endpoints in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2023 Aug 29;111(3):30

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PMID: 37642728

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