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    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine delta-coronavirus (PDCoV) are economically important pathogens that cause diarrhea in sows and acute death of newborn piglets. Moreover, the emerging PDCoV was reported to infect children. The current situation is that vaccine prevention has not met expectations, and emergency containment strategies following outbreaks cannot prevent the damages and losses already incurred. Therefore, a more sensitive detection method, that is both convenient and enables accurate and effective sequencing, that will provide early warning of PEDV and PDCoV is necessary. This will enable active, effective, and comprehensive prevention and control, which will possibly reduce disease occurrences. Duplex nested RT-PCR (dnRT-PCR) is an ideal method to achieve early warning and monitoring of PEDV and PDCoV diseases, and to additionally investigate any molecular epidemiological characteristics. In this study, two pairs of primers were designed for each virus based upon the highly conserved N protein sequences of both PEDV and PDCoV strains retrieved from the NCBI Genbank. After optimization of the reaction conditions, the dnRT-PCR assay amplified a 749-bp fragment specific to PEDV and a 344-bp fragment specific to PDCoV. Meanwhile, the specificity and sensitivity of the primers and clinical samples were tested to verify and establish this dnRT-PCR method. The limit of detection (LoD)for both PEDV and PDCoV was 10 copies/µL. The results showed that among 251 samples, 1 sample contained PEDV infection, 19 samples contained a PDCoV infection, and 8 samples were infected with both viruses, following the use of dnRT-PCR. Subsequently, the positive samples were sent for sequencing, and the sequencing results confirmed that they were all positive for the viruses detected using dnRT-PCR, and conventional RT-PCR detection was conducted again after the onset of disease. As these results were consistent with previous results, a detection method for PEDV and PDCoV using dnRT-PCR was successfully established. In conclusion, the dnRT-PCR method established in this study was able to detect both PEDV and PDCoV, concomitantly. The duplex nested RT-PCR method represents a convenient, reliable, specific, sensitive and anti-interference technique for detecting PEDV and PDCoV, and can additionally be used to simultaneously determine the molecular epidemiological background. © 2023. BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature.


    Chun Qi Li, Li Qun Hu, Guo Ping Liu, Yan Wang, Tong Li, Shao Xian Chen, Xiao Lin Yang, Li Xin Ma, Jian Guo Zeng. A duplex nested RT-PCR method for monitoring porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine delta-coronavirus. BMC veterinary research. 2023 Sep 08;19(1):151

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    PMID: 37684673

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