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    With the development of cities and population, the production of sludge is increasing annually. It has become an unavoidable challenge to achieve sludge dewatering and disposal by a cost-effective, efficient and safe process. In this work, firstly, the factors limiting sludge dewatering are reviewed in terms of moisture distribution, sludge concentration, organic matter content, electronegativity, floc strength, and extracellular polymers (EPS). Subsequently, focusing on the dewatering technology about the skeleton builder, the recent progress of it is detailed in terms of mechanism, evaluation indicators, influencing factors, and technology coupling. In addition, the impact of skeleton builders on the sludge disposal stage is concluded. Finally, the challenges faced by sludge dewatering and skeleton builders are prospected. This review will provide some theoretical basis and technical guidance for subsequent experiments and practices regarding skeleton builders.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Purui Bao, Chunyan Du, Yifu Li, Heng Jiang, Lu Zhou, Guanlong Yu, Shiquan Sun, Lean Zhou, Xue Li, Junyi Teng, Xiaowen Wang, Junchao Wang. Application of skeleton builders to sludge dewatering and disposal: A critical review. The Science of the total environment. 2023 Sep 15:167106167106

    PMID: 37717769

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