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    Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory disorders in adults. Although clinical studies have suggested a causal relationship between periodontitis and major depression (MD), the biological mechanisms by which periodontitis instigates MD are unknown. We investigated whether a systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a major Gram-negative pathogen of periodontitis, causes depressive-like behavior and glial activation in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which are MD-related brain regions. Eight-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a behavioral test group and an immunohistochemistry group. The rats in each group were further assigned to the sham injection (saline) and Porphyromonas gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS) injection protocols. The rats received an intraperitoneal injection of saline or Pg-LPS with gradually increasing doses (day 1: 0.5, day 2: 0.5, day 3: 0.75, day 4: 0.75, day 5: 1.0, day 6: 1.0, and day 7: 1.0 mg/kg of body weight) for seven consecutive days. After the systemic administration, the behavior test group underwent the forced swimming test (FST) and Y-maze test. For the immunohistochemistry group, we quantified the immunoreactivity for microglial Iba-1 (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1) and astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus (dentate gyrus [DG], cornu ammonis [CA1 and CA3]) and PFC (prelimbic [PrL] and the infralimbic [IL]) areas. The FST immobility time in the Pg-LPS group was significantly longer than that in the sham group. In the Y-maze test, a significant decline in spontaneous alternation behavior was observed in the Pg-LPS group compared to the sham group. The peripheral administration of Pg-LPS significantly increased the immunoreactivity for Iba-1 in the CA3 and PrL. Pg-LPS injection significantly increased the immunoreactivity for GFAP in the DG, CA1, and CA3. The major result of this study is that a repeated systemic administration of Pg-LPS caused depressive-like behavior and both microglial and astrocytic activation in rats. This finding may comprise biological evidence of a causal relationship between periodontitis and MD. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IMR Press.


    Rahman Mamunur, Sadayuki Hashioka, Ilhamuddin A Azis, Muhammad A Jaya, Sultana J F Jerin, Kaori Kimura-Kataoka, Junko Fujihara, Ken Inoue, Masatoshi Inagaki, Haruo Takeshita. Systemic Administration of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide Induces Glial Activation and Depressive-Like Behavior in Rats. Journal of integrative neuroscience. 2023 Aug 14;22(5):120

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    PMID: 37735127

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