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 • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance has implications for antiretroviral treatment strategies and for containing the HIV pandemic because the development of HIV drug resistance leads to the requirement for antiretroviral drugs that may be less effective, less well-tolerated, and more expensive than those used in first-line regimens.  • HIV drug resistance studies are designed to determine which HIV mutations are selected by antiretroviral drugs and, in turn, how these mutations affect antiretroviral drug susceptibility and response to future antiretroviral treatment regimens.  • Such studies collectively form a vital knowledge base essential for monitoring global HIV drug resistance trends, interpreting HIV genotypic tests, and updating HIV treatment guidelines.  • Although HIV drug resistance data are collected in many studies, such data are often not publicly shared, prompting the need to recommend best practices to encourage and standardize HIV drug resistance data sharing.  • In contrast to other viruses, sharing HIV sequences from phylogenetic studies of transmission dynamics requires additional precautions as HIV transmission is criminalized in many countries and regions.  • Our recommendations are designed to ensure that the data that contribute to HIV drug resistance knowledge will be available without undue hardship to those publishing HIV drug resistance studies and without risk to people living with HIV. Copyright: This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


Seth C Inzaule, Mark J Siedner, Susan J Little, Santiago Avila-Rios, Alisen Ayitewala, Ronald J Bosch, Vincent Calvez, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Charlotte Charpentier, Diane Descamps, Susan H Eshleman, Joseph Fokam, Lisa M Frenkel, Ravindra K Gupta, John P A Ioannidis, Pontiano Kaleebu, Rami Kantor, Seble G Kassaye, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Vinie Kouamou, Roger D Kouyos, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Richard Lessells, Anne-Genevieve Marcelin, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Brian Minalga, Nicaise Ndembi, Richard A Neher, Roger Paredes, Deenan Pillay, Elliot G Raizes, Soo-Yon Rhee, Douglas D Richman, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Pardis C Sabeti, Jonathan M Schapiro, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Kim Steegen, Wataru Sugiura, Gert U van Zyl, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Annemarie M J Wensing, Joel O Wertheim, Huldrych F Gunthard, Michael R Jordan, Robert W Shafer. Recommendations on data sharing in HIV drug resistance research. PLoS medicine. 2023 Sep;20(9):e1004293

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PMID: 37738247

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