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Neonicotinoids, the class of insecticides used for crop protection, are subjected to vigilance due to their pernicious impacts. Imidacloprid (IMD) is one of the most representative insecticides of the neonicotinoid family, which has shown unfriendly consequences for non-target species. Metabolomics, a multidisciplinary approach, is being used in toxicological research to understand the metabolic responses to toxicant exposure by utilizing modern analytical techniques. Yet, no solitary analytical technique can cover the broad metabolite spectrum, but a multi-technique metabolomics platform can aid in analyzing the majority of the metabolites. In the present study, an effort has been made to identify the differential metabolites in Drosophila after exposure to IMD at 2.5 and 25 ng/mL using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), gas chromatography-MS (GC-MS), and NMR-based untargeted metabolomics. Multivariate pattern recognition analysis helped in identifying/recognizing 19 (LC-HRMS), 7 (GC-MS), and 13 (NMR) differential metabolites mainly belonging to the category of amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, and organic acids. The pathway analysis of differential metabolites predominantly showed impact on aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Among these, arginine and proline metabolism was observed to be the common metabolic pathway perturbed in Drosophila due to IMD exposure. The multiplatform metabolomics based on LC-HRMS, GC-MS, and NMR analysis with an advanced level of statistical analysis can provide insights into potential perturbations in the metabolome of IMD-exposed Drosophila.


Deviprasad Rendedula, Raju Doddipalla, Hussain Shaik, Himanshu Pawankumar Gupta, Deepika Godugu, Ravi Ram Kristipati, Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam. Multiplatform Metabolomics to Understand the Imidacloprid-Induced Toxicity in Drosophila. Chemical research in toxicology. 2023 Sep 27

PMID: 37755873

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