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The relationship between the major periodontal bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN)-particularly with respect to galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1)-has not been fully elucidated. Saliva samples from 30 IgAN patients and 44 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were subjected to analysis of P. gingivalis status via polymerase chain reaction using a set of P. gingivalis-specific primers. The associations between P. gingivalis presence and clinical parameters, including plasma Gd-IgA1, were analyzed in each group. Compared with the CKD group, the IgAN group demonstrated significantly higher plasma Gd-IgA1 levels (p < 0.05). Compared with the P. gingivalis-negative subgroup, the P. gingivalis-positive subgroup exhibited significantly higher plasma Gd-IgA1 levels in both IgAN and CKD patients (p < 0.05). Additionally, among IgAN patients, the P. gingivalis-positive subgroup displayed significantly higher plasma Gd-IgA1 and urine protein levels, compared with the P. gingivalis-negative subgroup (p < 0.05). With respect to renal biopsy findings, the frequencies of segmental glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis were significantly greater in the P. gingivalis-positive subgroup than in the P. gingivalis-negative subgroup, according to the Oxford classification of IgAN (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest an association between the presence of P. gingivalis in the oral cavity and the pathogenesis of IgAN, mediated by increased levels of Gd-IgA1. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Japanese Society of Nephrology.

Citation

Seigo Ito, Taro Misaki, Yasuyuki Nagasawa, Ryota Nomura, Shuhei Naka, Akiko Fukunaga, Daiki Matsuoka, Saaya Matayoshi, Michiyo Matsumoto-Nakano, Kazuhiko Nakano. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in the oral cavity is associated with elevated galactose-deficient IgA1 and increased nephritis severity in IgA nephropathy. Clinical and experimental nephrology. 2024 Mar;28(3):192-200

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PMID: 37806974

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