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    Bladder cancer is a global health issue with sex differences in incidence and prognosis. Bladder cancer has distinct molecular subtypes with multiple pathogenic pathways depending on whether the disease is non-muscle invasive or muscle invasive. The mutational burden is higher in muscle-invasive than in non-muscle-invasive disease. Commonly mutated genes include TERT, FGFR3, TP53, PIK3CA, STAG2 and genes involved in chromatin modification. Subtyping of both forms of bladder cancer is likely to change considerably with the advent of single-cell analysis methods. Early detection signifies a better disease prognosis; thus, minimally invasive diagnostic options are needed to improve patient outcomes. Urine-based tests are available for disease diagnosis and surveillance, and analysis of blood-based cell-free DNA is a promising tool for the detection of minimal residual disease and metastatic relapse. Transurethral resection is the cornerstone treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and intravesical therapy can further improve oncological outcomes. For muscle-invasive bladder cancer, radical cystectomy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard of care with evidence supporting trimodality therapy. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated benefit in non-muscle-invasive, muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer. Effective management requires a multidisciplinary approach that considers patient characteristics and molecular disease characteristics. © 2023. Springer Nature Limited.


    Lars Dyrskjøt, Donna E Hansel, Jason A Efstathiou, Margaret A Knowles, Matthew D Galsky, Jeremy Teoh, Dan Theodorescu. Bladder cancer. Nature reviews. Disease primers. 2023 Oct 26;9(1):58

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    PMID: 37884563

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