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Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) represents a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that affect enamel formation and mineralization. Although AI is commonly considered a monogenic disorder, digenic inheritance is rarely reported. In this study, we recruited two nonconsanguineous Chinese families exhibiting diverse phenotypes of enamel defects among affected family members. Digenic variants were discovered in both probands. In family 1, the proband inherited a paternal frameshift variant in LAMA3 (NM_198129.4:c.3712dup) and a maternal deletion encompassing the entire AMELX gene. This resulted in a combined hypoplastic and hypomineralized AI phenotype, which was distinct from the parents' manifestations. In family 2, whole-exome sequencing analysis revealed the proband carried a maternal heterozygous splicing variant in COL17A1 (NC_000010.11 (NM_000494.3): c.4156 + 2dup) and compound heterozygous variants in RELT (paternal: NM_032871.4:c.260A > T; maternal: NM_032871.4:c.521 T > G). These genetic changes caused the abundant irregular enamel defects observed in the proband, whereas other affected family members carrying heterozygous variants in both COL17A1 and RELT displayed only horizontal grooves as their phenotype. The pathogenicity of the novel COL17A1 splice site variant was confirmed through RT-PCR and minigene assay. This study enhances our understanding by highlighting the potential association between the co-occurrence of variants in two genes and variable phenotypes observed in AI patients. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Yi Yang, Man Qin, Yuming Zhao, Xin Wang. Digenic inheritance accounts for phenotypic variability in amelogenesis imperfecta. Clinical genetics. 2024 Mar;105(3):243-253

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PMID: 37937686

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