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Current guidelines recommend initial monotherapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with cardiopulmonary comorbidities, despite limited available evidence to guide management. Do left heart disease (LHD) risk factors have an impact on treatment response and influence applicability of risk assessment in a real-world cohort of patients with PAH? The Ambrisentan and Tadalafil in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (AMBITION) trial criteria was used to define the phenotype of patients with PAH with risk factors for LHD. Treatment strategy, functional outcome, long-term survival, and risk discrimination were compared with a reference PAH cohort using the Pulmonary Hypertension Society of Australia and New Zealand Registry. A total of 487 incident patients with PAH diagnosed between 2011 and 2020 were included. Of these, 103 (21.1%) fulfilled the definition of PAH with LHD risk factors, with 384 (78.9%) remaining as the reference group. Patients in the PAH with LHD risk factors group were older (66 ± 13 vs 58 ± 19 years; P < .001), had lower pulmonary vascular resistance (393 ± 266 vs 708 ± 391 dyn.s/cm5; P = .031), and had worse 6-min walk distance (286 ± 130 vs 327 ± 136 m; P = .005) at diagnosis. The PAH with LHD risk factors group was less likely to receive initial combination therapy (27% vs 44%; P = .02). Changes in 6-min walk distance at 12 months were similar in both groups (43 ± 77 m in the PAH with LHD risk factors group and 50 ± 90 m in the reference group; P = .50), including when stratified by initial treatment strategy (PAH with LHD risk factors group vs reference PAH group: monotherapy: 40 ± 81 vs 38 ± 95 m, P = .87; combination therapy: 53 ± 78 vs 64 ± 106 m, P = .511). Functional class improvements were also similar in both groups. REVEAL Registry 2.0 risk score effectively discriminated risk in both populations (C statistic = 0.756 for the PAH with LHD risk factors group and C statistic = 0.750 for the reference PAH group). There was no difference in survival between the two groups (log-rank test, P = .29). In a real-world cohort, patients with PAH with LHD risk factors were less likely to be exposed to initial combination therapy. Nevertheless, selected patients with PAH with LHD risk factors who were treated with initial combination therapy derived similar functional response compared with the reference group. Further studies are needed to phenotype patients with PAH with cardiopulmonary comorbidities who may benefit from initial combination therapy. Crown Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Katherine Kearney, Karen Brown, David S Celermajer, Nicholas Collins, Rachael Cordina, Carolyn Corrigan, Nathan Dwyer, John Feenstra, Dominic Keating, Anne Keogh, Eugene Kotlyar, Melanie Lavender, Tanya McWilliams, Trevor Williams, Helen Whitford, Robert Weintraub, Jeremy Wrobel, Claire Ellender, James Anderson, Edmund M Lau, PHSANZ Registry. Impact of Left Heart Disease Risk Factors on Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Therapy. Chest. 2024 Apr;165(4):967-977

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PMID: 37951349

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