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    Since the first successful liver transplant in 1967, immunosuppression has allowed liver transplantation to become the standard treatment of end-stage liver disease. Over the decades, the rates of rejection have decreased, and patient survival outcomes have significantly improved in large part due to the introduction and advancements of immunosuppression medications. However, the adverse effects associated with long-term immunosuppression have created new challenges facing liver transplantation and added significantly to posttransplantation morbidity. This review presents the data and rationale for immunosuppression approaches, addresses the main controversies related to immunosuppression in liver transplantation, and explores some of the newer advancements in immunosuppressive drug therapy. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Michie Adjei, Irene K Kim. Current Use of Immunosuppression in Liver Transplantation. The Surgical clinics of North America. 2024 Feb;104(1):11-25

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    PMID: 37953030

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