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Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze cyclic nucleotides, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Both cyclic nucleotides are critical secondary messengers in the neurohormonal regulation in the cardiovascular system. PDEs precisely control spatiotemporal subcellular distribution of cyclic nucleotides in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, playing critical roles in physiological responses to hormone stimulation in the heart and vessels. Dysregulation of PDEs has been linked to the development of several cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, aneurysm, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, and heart failure. Targeting these enzymes has been proven effective in treating cardiovascular diseases and is an attractive and promising strategy for the development of new drugs. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the complex regulation of PDE isoforms in cardiovascular function, highlighting the divergent and even opposing roles of PDE isoforms in different pathogenesis.


Qin Fu, Ying Wang, Chen Yan, Yang K Xiang. Phosphodiesterase in heart and vessels: from physiology to diseases. Physiological reviews. 2024 Apr 01;104(2):765-834

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PMID: 37971403

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