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Acne vulgaris, a prevalent skin disorder among teenagers and young adults, can have numerous psychological consequences. Topical treatment of acne would be advantageous by reducing the risk of systemic adverse drug reactions. However, the major challenge would be skin penetration through the stratum corneum. Therefore, during this study, tretinoin (TRT) and bicalutamide (BCT) loaded niosomes with follicular targeting potential were fabricated through the thin film hydration technique. Formulation optimization was performed using the Design-Expert software and optimum formulation was characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, drug loading, and differential scanning calorimetry. In vivo follicular targeting was assessed using rhodamine B-loaded niosomes to follow the skin penetration pathways. The results showed that, the optimum formulation was spherical in shape and had an average diameter of 319.20 ± 18.50 nm and a zeta potential of - 29.70 ± 0.36 mV. Furthermore, entrapment efficiencies were 94.63 ± 0.50% and > 99% and loading capacities were 1.40 ± 0.01% and 1.48 ± 0.00% for BCT and TRT, respectively. According to the animal study results, the prepared niosomes with an average diameter of about 300 nm showed significant accumulation in hair follicles. It seems that the designed niosomal BCT-TRT co-delivery system would be promising in acne management with follicular targeting potential. © 2023. The Author(s).


Parisa Ghasemiyeh, Fatemeh Moradishooli, Saeid Daneshamouz, Reza Heidari, Uranous Niroumand, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani. Optimization, characterization, and follicular targeting assessment of tretinoin and bicalutamide loaded niosomes. Scientific reports. 2023 Nov 16;13(1):20023

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PMID: 37973805

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