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    Fluid intake and hydration status during pregnancy may have influences on maternal and infant health. However, few studies have recorded and analyzed total fluid intake (TFI) levels during the whole pregnancy. This study mainly aimed to investigate the TFI levels of pregnant women in three trimesters, and further to assess their hydration status. The relationships of TFI and hydration status were also analyzed. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit pregnant women from the Haikou Maternity and Child Health Hospital in China in this prospective cohort study. A 7-day 24 h fluid intake questionnaire was used for recording the fluid intake of the participants in their three trimesters. Fasting blood samples and first morning urine samples were also collected and tested. Hydration status was evaluated using urine osmolality. Finally, 142 pregnant women completed the study. The median TFIs in the first, second, and third trimesters were 1336, 1477, and 1584 mL, respectively. The TFI levels increased with pregnancy progression (χ2 = 134.155, p < 0.05). Out of 142 participants, 100.0%, 97.2%, and 85.2% of participants did not reach the recommendation amount for an adequate TFI among Chinese pregnant women in the three trimesters, respectively (χ2 = 29.840, p < 0.05). Plain water was the main source of fluid intake, accounting for 92.0%, 94.2%, and 93.4% of TFI, respectively. The median values of dairy product intake were 61, 57, and 59 mL in the three trimesters. The frequency of participants without an optimal hydration status in the three trimesters was 71.8%, 76.1%, and 83.1%, respectively (χ2 = 29.909, p < 0.05). The participants of each trimester were divided into four groups according to quartiles of TFI, including participants with a lower fluid intake (LFI1 and LFI2) and higher fluid intake (HFI1 and HFI2). As the TFI values increased from the LFI1 group to the HFI2 group, the urine osmolality decreased (all p < 0.05). Moderate-intensity negative correlations were found between urine osmolality, hydration status, and TFI (all p < 0.05). It is suggested that fluid intake strategies should be promoted and health education should be conducted to improve the hydration status of pregnant women.


    Yongye Song, Fan Zhang, Xing Wang, Guotian Lin, Limin He, Zhixiong Lin, Na Zhang, Guansheng Ma. The Amount of Fluid Intake among Pregnant Women in China Increases with Pregnancy Progression: A Prospective Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2023 Nov 08;15(22)

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    PMID: 38004114

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