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How cells regulate protein levels is a central question of biology. Over the past decades, molecular biology research has provided profound insights into the mechanisms and the molecular machinery governing each step of the gene expression process, from transcription to protein degradation. Recent advances in transcriptomics and proteomics have complemented our understanding of these fundamental cellular processes with a quantitative, systems-level perspective. Multi-omic studies revealed significant quantitative, kinetic and functional differences between the genome, transcriptome and proteome. While protein levels often correlate with mRNA levels, quantitative investigations have demonstrated a substantial impact of translation and protein degradation on protein expression control. In addition, protein-level regulation appears to play a crucial role in buffering protein abundances against undesirable mRNA expression variation. These findings have practical implications for many fields, including gene function prediction and precision medicine. © 2023 The Authors. Proteomics published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

Citation

Victoria Munro, Van Kelly, Christoph B Messner, Georg Kustatscher. Cellular control of protein levels: A systems biology perspective. Proteomics. 2023 Nov 27:e2200220


PMID: 38012370

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