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    In recent years, phthalates and their metabolites have been associated with metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. To investigate the effects of phthalate metabolites exposure on insulin production and release, 1.1B4 pancreatic beta cells were treated with different concentrations (0.001-1000 µM) of monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP). For such purpose, the 1.1B4 cells were evaluated for their viability, apoptosis rate, lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), oxidative stress, ER stress status, in addition to their secretory functions. MEHP, not MBP, exhibited a notable reduction in metabolic viability, particularly at higher concentrations (500 and 1000 µM) following 24-hour exposure. Similarly, both MEHP and MBP induced decreased metabolic viability at high concentrations after 48- and 72-hour exposure. Notably, neither MEHP nor MBP demonstrated a significant impact on apoptosis rates after 24-hour exposure, and MBP induced mild necrosis at 1000 µM concentration. Cell proliferation rates, indicated by PCNA expression, decreased with 10 and 1000 µM MEHP and 0.1 and 10 µM MBP exposures. LMP analysis revealed an increase in 1000 µM MBP group. Exposure to 0.001 µM of both MEHP and MBP significantly reduced cellular glutathione (GSH) levels. No significant change in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and ΔΨm was observed, but MBP-exposed cells exhibited elevated levels of lipid peroxidation. Functional assessments of pancreatic beta cells unveiled reduced insulin secretion at low glucose concentrations following exposure to both MEHP and MBP, with concurrent alterations in the expression levels of key proteins associated with beta cell function, including GLUT1, GCK, PDX1, and MafA. Moreover, MEHP and MBP exposures were associated with alterations in ER stress-related pathways, including JNK, GADD153, and NF-κB expression, as well as PPARα and PPARγ levels. In conclusion, this study provides comprehensive insights into the diverse impacts of MEHP and MBP on 1.1B4 pancreatic beta cells, emphasizing their potential role in modulating cell survival, metabolic function, and stress response pathways. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Fulya Dal Yöntem, Sinem Ayaz, Şeyma Bulut, Ebru Hacıosmanoğlu Aldoğan, Müfide Aydoğan Ahbab. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and pro-inflammatory responses induced by phthalate metabolites monoethylhexyl phthalate and monobutyl phthalate in 1.1B4 pancreatic beta cells. Toxicology. 2024 Jan;501:153695

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    PMID: 38048874

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