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    The Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a critical cellular organelle, maintains cellular homeostasis by regulating calcium levels and orchestrating essential functions such as protein synthesis, folding, and lipid production. A pivotal aspect of ER function is its role in protein quality control. When misfolded proteins accumulate within the ER due to factors like protein folding chaperone dysfunction, toxicity, oxidative stress, or inflammation, it triggers the Unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR involves the activation of chaperones like calnexin, calreticulin, glucose-regulating protein 78 (GRP78), and Glucose-regulating protein 94 (GRP94), along with oxidoreductases like protein disulphide isomerases (PDIs). Cells employ the Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) mechanism to counteract protein misfolding. ERAD disruption causes the detachment of GRP78 from transmembrane proteins, initiating a cascade involving Inositol-requiring kinase/endoribonuclease 1 (IRE1), Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathways. The accumulation and deposition of misfolded proteins within the cell are hallmarks of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. These aberrant proteins disrupt normal neuronal signalling and contribute to impaired cellular homeostasis, including oxidative stress and compromised protein degradation pathways. In essence, ER stress is defined as the cellular response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, encompassing a series of signalling pathways and molecular events that aim to restore cellular homeostasis. This comprehensive review explores ER stress and its profound implications for the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Rimaljot Singh, Navpreet Kaur, Vinay Choubey, Neelima Dhingra, Tanzeer Kaur. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and its role in various neurodegenerative diseases. Brain research. 2024 Mar 01;1826:148742

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    PMID: 38159591

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