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    Ti6Al4V scaffolds with pore sizes between 300 and 600 µm are deemed suitable for bone tissue engineering. However, a significant proportion of human bone pores are smaller than 300 µm, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone regeneration. Ti6Al4V scaffolds with these small-sized pores are not successfully fabricated, and their cytocompatibility remains unknown. The study presents a novel ink formula specifically tailored for fabricating Ti6Al4V scaffolds featuring precise and unobstructed sub-300 µm structural pores, achieved by investigating the rheological properties and printability of five inks containing 60-77.5 vol% Ti6Al4V powders and bisolvent binders. Ti6Al4V scaffolds with 50-600 µm pores are fabricated via direct ink writing and subjected to in vitro assays with MC3T3-E1 and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The 100 µm pore-sized scaffolds exhibit the highest cell adhesion and proliferation capacity based on live/dead assay, FITC-phalloidin/4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and cell count kit 8 assay. The alizarin red staining, real-time quantitative PCR assay, and immunocytochemical staining demonstrate the superior osteogenic differentiation potential of 100 and 200 µm pore-sized scaffolds. The importance of sub-300 µm structrual pores is highlighted, redefining the optimal pore size for Ti6Al4V scaffolds and advancing bone tissue engineering and clinical medicine development. © 2024 Wiley‐VCH GmbH.


    Chao Xu, Yan Xu, Hao Chen, Qing Han, Wenzheng Wu, Lu Zhang, Qingping Liu, Jincheng Wang, Luquan Ren. Novel-Ink-Based Direct Ink Writing of Ti6Al4V Scaffolds with Sub-300 µm Structural Pores for Superior Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. Advanced healthcare materials. 2024 Apr;13(10):e2302396

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    PMID: 38180708

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