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    The immune-mediated small vessel vasculitis is known as Schoenlein-Henoch purpura predominantly from pediatrics and in these cases occurs more frequently after infections of the upper airways. In adults, immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis often proceeds more severely und recurrently with the classical tetrad of skin manifestations in the sense of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, joint affection, gastrointestinal involvement and IgA nephritis, in contrast to the mostly mild and self-limiting course in children. The background of this systemic vasculitis with formation of IgA immune complexes is considered to be an altered glycosylation of IgA, as this causes the exposure of binding sites for autoantibodies so that an immune complex reaction can be elicited. This ultimately leads to perivascular deposition of IgA and a further activation of neutrophils. Groundbreaking in the diagnostics is the histological detection of leukocytoclastic vasculitis and in cases of renal manifestations a kidney biopsy with characteristic deposits of immune complexes, which cannot be clearly differentiated from IgA nephropathy. The treatment is aimed at the respective manifestation and is mostly based on consensus recommendations due to the lack of randomized studies. In addition to immunosuppressive medication, in the presence of a chronic kidney disease general nephroprotection is becoming increasingly more important also by inhibition of sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2). The type and extent of kidney involvement and also rare cardiac manifestations are the main determinants of the prognosis. Continuous medical accompaniment of those affected is necessary due to the possible progression of the disease and the risk of recurrence. © 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature.

    Citation

    Sabine Adler. Immunoglobulin A vasculitis]. Innere Medizin (Heidelberg, Germany). 2024 Feb;65(2):114-121

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    PMID: 38236411

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