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    Phloretin is ubiquitous in apples (Malus domestica) and other fruits and has potential antidiabetic properties. Considering the preclinical potential of phloretin, its transition to clinical observations has unintentionally been neglected, particularly within the diabetic population. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of its pharmacokinetics remains elusive. This review seeks to offer valuable insights into phloretin's physical properties, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, aiming to unveil opportunities for additional research on its therapeutic potential in the context of diabetes. All pharmacokinetic reports of phloretin confirm that the utilization of phloretin gets enhanced during diabetic conditions. Phloretin targets pathomechanisms such as glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator's activity-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) to decrease insulin resistance in diabetic conditions. Moreover, phloretin targets inflammatory, oxidative, and apoptotic signaling to minimize the progression of diabetes-associated macro- and microvascular complications. The pleiotropic antidiabetic action of phloretin is mainly dependent on its pharmacokinetics. Nevertheless, further investigation into the altered pharmacokinetics of phloretin during diabetic conditions is essential. Additionally, the results derived from clinical studies utilized apples, apple extract, and supplements containing phloretin. Greater emphasis should be placed on future clinical studies to assess the potential of phloretin as a standalone compound. © The Author(s) 2024. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    Vishwadeep Shelke, Ajinath Kale, Yogesh A Kulkarni, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad. Phloretin: a comprehensive review of its potential against diabetes and associated complications. The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 2024 Mar 04;76(3):201-212

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    PMID: 38243397

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