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Due to the global increase in aging populations and changes in modern lifestyles, the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular disorders, neuropsychiatrcic conditions, and related ailments is rising, placing an increasing burden on the global public health system. All studies on tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) and its derivatives were obtained from reputable sources such as PubMed, Elsevier, Library Genesis, and Google Scholar. Comprehensive data on TMP and its derivatives was meticulously compiled. This comprehensive analysis explains the neuroprotective effects demonstrated by TMP and its derivatives in diseases of the central nervous system. These compounds exert their influence on various targets and signaling pathways, playing crucial roles in the development of various central nervous system diseases. Their multifaceted mechanisms include inhibiting oxidative damage, inflammation, cell apoptosis, calcium overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, and acetylcholinesterase activity. This review provides a brief summary of the most recent advancements in research on TMP and its derivatives in the context of central nervous system diseases. It involves synthesizing analogs of TMP and evaluating their effectiveness in models of central nervous system diseases. The ultimate goal is to facilitate the practical application of TMP and its derivatives in the future treatment of central nervous system diseases. © 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.


Fan Feng, Ding-Qiao Xu, Shi-Jun Yue, Yan-Yan Chen, Yu-Ping Tang. Neuroprotection by tetramethylpyrazine and its synthesized analogues for central nervous system diseases: a review. Molecular biology reports. 2024 Jan 22;51(1):159

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PMID: 38252346

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