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Non-drinkers report experiencing stigma, which can act as a barrier to non-drinking. Two studies were undertaken to develop and test a new scale to measure attitudes towards non-drinkers. In Study 1, 29 items were presented to 426 Australian drinkers. In Study 2, the refined 12-item Cheers Attitudes to Non-drinkers Scale (CANS) was presented to 389 drinkers. Alcohol consumption, Harm and the Regan Attitudes towards Non-drinkers Scale (RANDS) were presented for scale validation. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors representing the Threats to Fun, Connection and Self that drinkers perceive non-drinkers to pose. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale meets the required fit indices and had good reliability (α = 0.842). Evidence of validity was shown through significant correlations with Alcohol Consumption, Harm and the RANDS. These studies show the CANS to be a reliable and valid measure that could be utilised to understand and modify the stigma experienced by non-drinkers.


Christopher Cheers, Amy Pennay, Xochitl de la Piedad Garcia, Sarah Callinan. Development and Validation of the Cheers Attitudes towards Non-drinkers Scale (CANS). Journal of health psychology. 2024 Jan 29:13591053231220519

PMID: 38284405

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