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This study examined the magnitude of physiological strain imposed by repeated maximal static and dynamic apneas through assessing a panel of stress-related biomarkers. Eleven healthy men performed on three separate occasions (≥72-h apart): a series of five repeated maximal (i) static (STA) or (ii) dynamic apneas (DYN) or (iii) a static eupneic protocol (CTL). Venous blood samples were drawn at 30, 90, and 180-min after each protocol to determine ischaemia modified albumin (IMA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myoglobin, and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT) concentrations. IMA was elevated after the apnoeic interventions (STA,+86%;DYN,+332%,p ≤ 0.047) but not CTL (p = 0.385). Myoglobin was higher than baseline (23.6 ± 3.9 ng/mL) 30-min post DYN (+70%,38.8 ± 13.3 ng/mL,p = 0.030). A greater myoglobin release was recorded in DYN compared with STA and CTL (p ≤ 0.035). No changes were observed in NSE (p = 0.207) or hscTnT (p = 0.274). Five repeated maximal DYN led to a greater muscle injury compared with STA but neither elicited myocardial injury or neuronal-parenchymal damage. Copyright © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Antonis Elia, Matthew J Barlow, Matthew J Lees, Georgios Petri, Michail E Keramidas. Stress biomarker changes following a series of repeated static and dynamic apneas in non-divers. Respiratory physiology & neurobiology. 2024 May;323:104228

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PMID: 38309488

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