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IN939 is a modern class of nickel-based superalloys designed for continuous operational sustenance at elevated temperatures owing to their excellent combination of fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance. This unique performance of IN939 is associated with the composition of this alloy, along with specific post-processing treatments such as solution treatment and aging, giving rise to features such as the presence of γ' residues, as well as the presence of MC and M23C6 carbides. This also includes the absence of the eutectic and incipient melting phases. For this alloy, the primary part development is by the powder bed fusion process using a laser powder bed fusion machine. At the same time, a solo study highlights the use of an EB-PBF machine for the synthesis. The AM development process of these alloys is hindered by machine parameters, which have been found ineffective in isolation to obtain a fully dense structure with desired properties. The purpose of these parameters is to improve their core properties while minimizing defects associated with powder metallurgy routes, such as porosity, detrimental precipitates, grain anisotropy, etc. This study aims to provide an overview of the advancements in research related to IN939, explicitly focusing on the benchmarks achieved through additive manufacturing techniques. We have discussed the work performed in this area, compared the results of different studies, and identified the gaps in current research. By doing so, we aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of the potential of IN939 and its applications in extreme environments. © 2024 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Syed Abbas Raza, Olcay Ersel Canyurt, Hüseyin Kürşad Sezer. A systematic review of Inconel 939 alloy parts development via additive manufacturing process. Heliyon. 2024 Feb 15;10(3):e25506

PMID: 38352740

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