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    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for the functioning of living cells. In higher eukaryotes, this multistep process is tightly controlled and involves a variety of specialized proteins and RNAs. This pool of so-called ribosome biogenesis factors includes diverse proteins with enzymatic and structural functions. Some of them have homologs in yeast S. cerevisiae, and their function can be inferred from the structural and biochemical data obtained for the yeast counterparts. The functions of human proteins RPF1 and ESF1 remain largely unclear, although RPF1 has been recently shown to participate in 60S biogenesis. Both proteins have drawn our attention since they contribute to the early stages of ribosome biogenesis, which are far less studied than the later stages. In this study, we employed the loss-of-function shRNA/siRNA-based approach to the human cell line HEK293 to determine the role of RPF1 and ESF1 in ribosome biogenesis. Downregulating RPF1 and ESF1 significantly changed the pattern of RNA products derived from 47S pre-rRNA. Our findings demonstrate that RPF1 and ESF1 are associated with different pre-ribosomal particles, pre-60S, and pre-40S particles, respectively. Our results allow for speculation about the particular steps of pre-rRNA processing, which highly rely on the RPF1 and ESF1 functions. We suggest that both factors are not directly involved in pre-rRNA cleavage but rather help pre-rRNA to acquire the conformation favoring its cleavage.


    Alexander Deryabin, Anastasiia Moraleva, Kira Dobrochaeva, Diana Kovaleva, Maria Rubtsova, Olga Dontsova, Yury Rubtsov. Human RPF1 and ESF1 in Pre-rRNA Processing and the Assembly of Pre-Ribosomal Particles: A Functional Study. Cells. 2024 Feb 10;13(4)

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    PMID: 38391939

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