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    The venoms of various sea anemones are rich in diverse toxins, which usually play a dual role in capturing prey and deterring predators. However, the complex components of such venoms have not been well known yet. Here, venomics of integrating transcriptomic and proteomic technologies was applied for the first time to identify putative protein and peptide toxins from different tissues of the representative sea anemone, Heteractis magnifica. The transcriptomic analysis of H. magnifica identified 728 putative toxin sequences, including 442 and 381 from the tentacles and the column, respectively, and they were assigned to 68 gene superfamilies. The proteomic analysis confirmed 101 protein and peptide toxins in the venom, including 91 in the tentacles and 39 in the column. The integrated venomics also confirmed that some toxins such as the ShK-like peptides and defensins are co-expressed in both the tentacles and the column. Meanwhile, a homology analysis was conducted to predict the three-dimensional structures and potential activity of seven representative toxins. Altogether, this venomics study revealed the venom complexity of H. magnifica, which will help deepen our understanding of cnidarian toxins, thereby supporting the in-depth development of valuable marine drugs.


    Ming Li, Kailin Mao, Meiling Huang, Yanling Liao, Jinxing Fu, Kun Pan, Qiong Shi, Bingmiao Gao. Venomics Reveals the Venom Complexity of Sea Anemone Heteractis magnifica. Marine drugs. 2024 Jan 28;22(2)

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    PMID: 38393042

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