Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • antibodies (3)
  • arthropods (1)
  • b cells (1)
  • cnidaria (1)
  • ctenophora (1)
  • invertebrates (5)
  • memory (10)
  • mollusca (1)
  • nematoda (1)
  • parasites (1)
  • past (2)
  • research (1)
  • t cells (1)
  • vertebrates (1)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    Whether specific immune protection after initial pathogen exposure (immune memory) occurs in invertebrates has long been uncertain. The absence of antibodies, B-cells and T-cells, and the short lifespans of invertebrates led to the hypothesis that immune memory does not occur in these organisms. However, research in the past two decades has supported the existence of immune memory in several invertebrate groups, including Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Mollusca and Arthropoda. Interestingly, some studies have demonstrated immune memory that is specific to the parasite strain. Nonetheless, other work does not provide support for immune memory in invertebrates or offers only partial support. Moreover, the expected biphasic immune response, a characteristic of adaptive immune memory in vertebrates, varies within and between invertebrate species. This variation may be attributed to the influence of biotic or abiotic factors, particularly parasites, on the outcome of immune memory. Despite its critical importance for survival, the role of phenotypic plasticity in immune memory has not been systematically examined in the past two decades. Additionally, the features of immune responses occurring in diverse environments have yet to be fully characterized. © 2024. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


    Humberto Lanz-Mendoza, Dumas Gálvez, Jorge Contreras-Garduño. The plasticity of immune memory in invertebrates. The Journal of experimental biology. 2024 Mar 07;227(Suppl_1)

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 38449328

    View Full Text