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    This review critically evaluates the potential of Waste Foundry Sand (WFS) as a substitute for fine aggregate in concrete, conducting a comparative analysis of its physical and chemical properties against those of natural sand. The study synthesizes findings from various research experiments to determine concrete's most effective WFS replacement percentage. It compiles and analyzes data on how different WFS ratios affect concrete's mechanical properties, including modulus of elasticity and compressive strength. The review also consolidates research on the impact of WFS on concrete's workability, density, and flowability. A key finding is that WFS, categorized as a non-hazardous waste, possesses a diverse particle size distribution, rendering it suitable for recycling in various industrial applications.The study identifies that a 20%-30% replacement of WFS in concrete significantly improves properties such as voids, specific gravity, and density. However, it is essential to note that exceeding a 30% WFS replacement can result in increased carbonation depth and decreased resistance, primarily due to sulfur trioxide (SO3). Further observations indicate that incorporating higher levels of WFS in self-compacting concrete reduces its flowability and increases water permeability. Moreover, the review highlights the regulatory and classification challenges associated with using WFS, particularly its classification as waste, which hampers its widespread adoption in construction. In conclusion, the study recommends implementing End-of-Waste (EoW) regulations to facilitate sustainable recycling and environmental protection. Additionally, it includes a bibliometric analysis of foundry sand research spanning from 1971 to 2020, providing a comprehensive summary of the field's historical and recent developments. © 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

    Citation

    Vikas Mehta. Sustainable approaches in concrete production: An in-depth review of waste foundry sand utilization and environmental considerations. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2024 Apr;31(16):23435-23461

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    PMID: 38462563

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