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    Human milk, which contains various nutrients, is the "gold standard" for infant nutrition. Healthy human milk meets all the nutritional needs of early infant development. Polar lipids mainly exist in the milk fat globule membrane, accounting for approximately 1-2% of human milk lipids; sphingomyelin (SM) accounts for approximately 21-24% of polar lipids. SM plays an important role in promoting the development of the brain and nervous system, regulating intestinal flora, and improving skin barriers. Though SM could be synthesized de novo, SM nutrition from dietary is also important for infants. The content and composition of SM in human milk has been reported, however, the molecular mechanisms of nutritional functions of SM for infants required further research. This review summarizes the functional mechanisms, metabolic pathways, and compositional, influencing factors, and mimicking of SM in human milk, and highlights the challenges of improving maternal and infant early/long-term nutrition. Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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    Yuying Yuan, Junying Zhao, Qian Liu, Yan Liu, Yan Liu, Xiaoyan Tian, Weicang Qiao, Yanyan Zhao, Yanpin Liu, Lijun Chen. Human milk sphingomyelin: Function, metabolism, composition and mimicking. Food chemistry. 2024 Jul 30;447:138991

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    PMID: 38520905

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