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Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STI) worldwide. Vaccination is generally considered to be one of the most effective methods of preventing infectious diseases. Using AP65, AP33 and α-actinin proteins, this research aims to develop a protein vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis. Based on the B-cell and T-cell epitope prediction servers, the most antigenic epitopes were selected, and with the necessary evaluations, epitope-rich domains of three proteins, AP65, AP33, and α-actinin, were selected and linked. Subsequently, the ability of the vaccine to interact with toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) was assessed. The stability of the interactions was also studied by molecular dynamics for a duration of 100 nanoseconds. The designed protein consists of 780 amino acids with a molecular weight of 85247.31 daltons. The results of the interaction of the vaccine candidate with TLR2 and TLR4 of the immune system also showed that there are strong interactions between the vaccine candidate protein with TLR2 (-890.7 kcal mol-1) and TLR4 (-967.3 kcal mol-1). All parameters studied to evaluate the stability of the protein structure and the protein-TLR2 and protein-TLR4 complexes showed that the structure of the vaccine candidate protein is stable alone and in complex with the immune system receptors. Investigation of the ability of the designed protein to induce an immune response using the C-ImmSim web server also showed that the designed protein is capable of stimulating B- and T-cell lymphocytes to produce the necessary cytokines and antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis. Overall, our vaccine may have potential protection against Trichomonas vaginalis. However, for experimental in vivo and in vitro studies, it may be a good vaccine candidate. © 2024. The Author(s).


Forozan Ghasemi Nezhad, Afsaneh Karmostaji, Parisa Sarkoohi, Behzad Shahbazi, Zahra Gharibi, Batul Negahdari, Khadijeh Ahmadi. Introduction of protein vaccine candidate based on AP65, AP33, and α-actinin proteins against Trichomonas vaginalis parasite: an immunoinformatics design. Parasites & vectors. 2024 Mar 31;17(1):165

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PMID: 38556882

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