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Despite 2-staged stereotactic radiosurgery (2-SSRS) has been reported to provide patients with improved survival and limited toxicity, 2-SSRS for brainstem metastases (BSM) larger than 2 cm3 remains challenging. We tried to find out the effectiveness and safety of 2-SSRS plus bevacizumab therapy for BSMs over 2 cm3 and prognostic factors that related to the tumor local control. Patients that received 2-SSRS plus bevacizumab therapy from four gamma knife center were retrospectively studied from Jan 2014 to December 2023. Patients' domestic characteristics and the tumor features were evaluated before and after the treatment. Cox regression model was used to find out prognostic factors for tumor local control. 53 patients with 63 lesions received the therapy. The median peri-tumor edema volume greatly reduced at the end of therapy (P < 0.01), the median tumor volume dramatically reduced (P < 0.01) and patients' KPS score improved significantly (P < 0.05) 3 months after the therapy. Patients' median OS was 12.8 months. The tumor local control rate at 3, 6, and 12 months was 98.4%, 93.4%, and 85.2%. The incidence side effects were mainly oral and nasal hemorrhage (5.7%, 3/53), and radiation necrosis (13.2%, 7/53). Patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma, therapeutic dose over 12 Gy at second-stage SRS, primary peri-tumor edema volume less than 2.3 cm³, primary tumor volume less than 3.7 cm³ would enjoy longer tumor local control. These results suggested that 2-SSRS plus bevacizumab therapy was effective and safe for BSMs over 2 cm3. However, it is important for patients with BSM to receive early diagnosis and treatment to achieve good tumor local control. © 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


Zheng Wang, Haining Chen, Qun Chen, Yucun Zhu, Min Li, Jia Zhou, Lingfei Shi. Outcomes of 2-SSRS plus bevacizumab therapy strategy for brainstem metastases (BSM) over 2 cm3: a multi-center study. Neurosurgical review. 2024 Apr 02;47(1):137

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PMID: 38564039

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