Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Electrochemical-induced precipitation is a sustainable approach for tap-water softening, but the hardness removal performance and energy efficiency are vastly limited by the ultraslow ion transport and the superlow local HCO3-/Ca2+ ratio compared to the industrial scenarios. To tackle the challenges, we herein report an energy-efficient electrochemical tap-water softening strategy by utilizing an integrated cathode-anode-cathode (CAC) reactor in which the direction of the electric field is reversed to that of the flow field in the upstream cell, while the same in the downstream cell. As a result, the transport of ions, especially HCO3-, is significantly accelerated in the downstream cell under a flow field. The local HCO3-/Ca2+ ratio is increased by 1.5 times, as revealed by the finite element numerical simulation and in situ imaging. In addition, a continuous flow electrochemical system with an integrated CAC reactor is operated for 240 h to soften tap water. Experiments show that a much lower cell voltage (9.24 V decreased) and energy consumption (28% decreased) are obtained. The proposed ion-transport enhancement strategy by coupled electric and flow fields provides a new perspective on developing electrochemical technologies to meet the flexible and economic demand for tap-water softening.


Zhengsen Li, Bincheng Xu, Tao Tao, Fengting Li, Gong Zhang, Ying Wang. Coupling of Electric and Flow Fields to Enhance Ion Transport for Energy-Efficient Electrochemical Tap-Water Softening. Environmental science & technology. 2024 Apr 30;58(17):7643-7652

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 38573006

View Full Text