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    Health of honey bees is threatened by a variety of stressors, including pesticides and parasites. Here, we investigated effects of acetamiprid, Varroa destructor, and Nosema ceranae, which act either alone or in combination. Our results suggested that interaction between the three factors was additive, with survival risk increasing as the number of stressors increased. Although exposure to 150 μg/L acetamiprid alone did not negatively impact honey bee survival, it caused severe damage to midgut tissue. Among the three stressors, V. destructor posed the greatest threat to honey bee survival, and N. ceranae exacerbated intestinal damage and increased thickness of the midgut wall. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that different combinations of stressors elicited specific gene expression responses in honey bees, and genes involved in energy metabolism, immunity, and detoxification were altered in response to multiple stressor combinations. Additionally, genes associated with Toll and Imd signalling, tyrosine metabolism, and phototransduction pathway were significantly suppressed in response to different combinations of multiple stressors. This study enhances our understanding of the adaptation mechanisms to multiple stressors and aids in development of suitable protective measures for honey bees. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATION: We believe our study is environmentally relevant for the following reasons: This study investigates combined effects of pesticide, Varroa destructor, and Nosema ceranae. These stressors are known to pose a threat to long-term survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and stability of the ecosystems. The research provides valuable insights into the adaptive mechanisms of honey bees in response to multiple stressors and developing effective conservation strategies. Further research can identify traits that promote honey bee survival in the face of future challenges from multiple stressors to maintain the overall stability of environment. Copyright © 2024 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Yuxin Kang, Tong Wu, Bo Han, Sa Yang, Xing Wang, Qiang Wang, Jing Gao, Pingli Dai. Interaction of acetamiprid, Varroa destructor, and Nosema ceranae in honey bees. Journal of hazardous materials. 2024 Jun 05;471:134380

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    PMID: 38657514

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