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Crystallographic studies of human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) crystals soaked with fragments of antiviral WIN compounds, at high concentrations (82-200 micrograms/ml), show the compounds bind into the hydrophobic beta-barrel (WIN pocket) of VP1. Two of these short compounds (5-[3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-methyltetrazole and phenol oxazoline) cause conformational changes in the virus similar to the active, longer WIN compounds. In addition, thermostabilization studies suggest these short WIN compounds provide some stability to the HRV14 capsid. We conclude that the short compounds appear to mimic the cellular cofactors observed in the hydrophobic pocket of VP1 for some picornaviruses. Both cofactors and short WIN compounds bind into the pocket, cause conformational changes in VP1, and provide a small degree of virion stabilization but are unlikely to inhibit attachment. Three specific binding sites for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), used as solvent, were also identified. One of the DMSO molecules binds into the drug binding pocket near the pocket opening, while the other two bind in the canyon near the VP1 protomer-protomer interface.


J K Bibler-Muckelbauer, M J Kremer, M G Rossmann, G D Diana, F J Dutko, D C Pevear, M A McKinlay. Human rhinovirus 14 complexed with fragments of active antiviral compounds. Virology. 1994 Jul;202(1):360-9

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PMID: 8009848

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