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QuickView for chlorhexidine (compound)

Name: Chlorhexidine
PubChem Compound ID: 493583
Description: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Molecular formula: C27H54N8O10
Molecular weight: 650.766 g/mol
AIDS123108; 55-56-1; AIDS-123108; D-Gluconyl-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys-NHET
Name: Chlorhexidine
Name (isomeric): DB00878
Drug Type: small molecule
Description: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Chlorhexidinum [INN-Latin]; Cloresidina [DCIT]; Chlorhexidine Base; Decanoylacetaldehyde Sodium Sulfide; Chlorhexidin [Czech]; Chlorhexidine Gluconate; Clorhexidina [INN-Spanish]
Brand: Exidine, Periochip, Peridex, Soretol, Sodium Houttuyfonamide, Hibiclens, Brian Care, Savlon Babycare, Fimeil, Rotersept, Cida-Stat, Sterido, Oro-Clense, Hexadol, Pharmaseal Scrub Care, Periogard, Superspray, Hibidil, Bioscrub, Microderm, Savloclens, Dyna-Hex, Prevacare R, Sterilon, Steri-Stat, Hibispray, Hibiscrub, Tubulicid, Nolvasan, Hibisol, Hibistat, Hibitane
Brand name mixture:
Sanidip(Chlorhexidine Acetate + Glycerine), Ic-Gel(Chlorhexidine Gluconate + Isopropyl Alcohol), G2(Alcohol Anhydrous + Chlorhexidine Gluconate), Salvesept Crm(Cetrimonium Bromide + Chlorhexidine Gluconate), Stanhexidine 4% with Isopropyl Alcohol 4%(Chlorhexidine Gluconate + Isopropyl Alcohol), Bioprep Liq(Chlorhexidine Gluconate + Didecyl Dimet...
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Category: Anti-Infective Agents, Local, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Disinfectants, Mouthwashes, Anti-Infectives
CAS number: 55-56-1
Indication: For reduction of pocket depth in patients with adult periodontitis, used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing procedures. Also for prevention of dental caries, oropharyngeal decontamination in critically ill patients, hand hygiene in health-care personnel, general skin cleanser, and catheter site preparation and care.
Pharmacology: Chlorhexidine, a topical antimicrobial agent, is bactericidal. Because of its positive charge, the chlorhexidine molecule reacts with the microbial cell surface to destroy the integrity of the cell membrane. This novel mechanism of action makes it highly unlikely for the development of bacterial resistance.
Mechanism of Action: Chlorhexidine's antimicrobial effects are associated with the attractions between chlorhexidine (cation) and negatively charged bacterial cells. After chlorhexidine is absorpted onto the organism's cell wall, it disrupts the integrity of the cell membrane and causes the leakage of intracellular components of the organisms.
Absorption: Absorption of chlorhexidine from the gastrointestinal tract is very poor. Additionally, an in vivo study in 18 adult patients found no detectable plasma or urine chlorhexidine concentrations following insertion of four periodontal implants under clinical conditions.
Protein binding: 87%
Route of elimination: Excretion of chlorhexidine gluconate occurred primarily through the feces (~90%). Less than 1% of the chlorhexidine gluconate ingested by these subjects was excreted in the urine.
Toxicity: LD50= 2g/kg (human, oral); LD50= 3 g/kg (rat, oral); LD50= 2.5 g/kg (mice, oral); LD50= 21 mg/kg (male rat, IV); LD50= 23 mg/kg (female rat, IV); LD50= 25 mg/kg (male mice, IV); LD50= 24 mg/kg (female mice, IV); LD50= 1g/kg (rat, subcutaneous); LD50= 637 mg/kg (male mice, subcutaneous); LD50= 632 mg/kg (female mice, subcutaneous)
Affected organisms: Bacteria