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Vitamin E and probucol are well-known antioxidants that prevent cells from the oxidative stress, which is a risk factor of atherosclerosis. Male rabbits were fed either 0.03% vitamin E or 0.05% probucol in a 0.5% high-cholesterol (HC) diet for 8 weeks. Vitamin E and probucol significantly suppressed an increase in plasma total-cholesterol (total-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to HC-control group. However, plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-C/total-C ratio levels and plasma paraoxonase activity were only significantly higher in vitamin E group after 8 weeks. Hepatic ACAT activity was significantly lower in both vitamin E and probucol groups than in HC-control group, while HMG-CoA reductase activity was the highest only in the probucol group. Total fecal sterol content was significantly higher in probucol and vitamin E groups than in the two control groups. Some atherogenic signs were discovered in the aortic fatty streak of HC-control group, yet not in other groups. Hepatic mRNA expressions of apo B-100 and apo C-III were significantly lower in probucol group than in other groups. Vitamin E supplementation was found to alter the plasma HDL-C-related factors; meanwhile, probucol supplementation was very effective in enhancing cholesterol metabolism, except for a negative effect that reduced plasma HDL-C concentration.


Seon-Min Jeon, Yong Bok Park, Oh-Shin Kwon, Tae-Lin Huh, Won-Ha Lee, Kyung-Min Do, Taesun Park, Myung-Sook Choi. Vitamin E supplementation alters HDL-cholesterol concentration and paraoxonase activity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet: comparison with probucol. Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology. 2005;19(5):336-46

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PMID: 16292755

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