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Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize a variety of ligands, including pathogen-associated molecular patterns and link innate and adaptive immunity. Individual receptors can be up-regulated during infection and inflammation. We examined the expression of selected TLRs at the protein level in various types of renal disease. Frozen sections of renal biopsies were stained with monoclonal antibodies to TLR-2, -4 and -9. Up-regulation of the three TLRs studied was seen, although the extent was modest. TLR-2- and -4-positive cells belonged to the population of infiltrating inflammatory cells; only in the case of TLR-9 were intrinsic glomerular cells positive in polyoma virus infection and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Evidence for the involvement of the three TLRs tested in a variety of human renal diseases was found. These findings add to our understanding of the role of the innate immune system in kidney disease.


Stephen Batsford, Ursula Duermueller, Christian Seemayer, Christoph Mueller, Helmut Hopfer, Michael Mihatsch. Protein level expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 4 and 9 in renal disease. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2011 Apr;26(4):1413-6

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PMID: 21220755

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