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Since T cells express diverse sex steroid hormone receptors, they might be a good model to evaluate the effects of sex steroid hormones on immune modulation. Porcine testicular extract contains several sex steroid hormones and may be useful to study the effects of sex steroid hormones during T cell activation. We have examined the effects of the porcine testicular extract on T cell activation: proliferation and secretion of cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ) by activated T cells were severely decreased after treatment with porcine testicular extract. The extract produced an immunosuppressive effect and inhibited the proliferation of activated T cells by blocking the cell cycle transition from the G(1) phase to S phase. These effects were mediated by a decrease in the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and constitutive expression of p27(KIP1) after T cell activation.


Han-Hyoung Lee, Suk Jun Lee, Sunhee Kim, Seonah Jeong, Manheum Na, Dong-Mok Lee, Yong-Pil Cheon, Ki Ho Lee, Inho Choi, Taehoon Chun. Porcine testicular extract inhibits T cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle transition from G₁ phase to S phase. Biotechnology letters. 2012 Jul;34(7):1225-33

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PMID: 22456900

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