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Regulatory T cells [Tregs ; CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+) )] are subsets of T cells involved in the maintenance of peripheral self-tolerance by actively suppressing the activation and expansion of autoreactive T cells. Signalling through the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) contributes to T cell tolerance by controlling three important aspects of regulatory T cell (Treg ) biology. CD25 is the α-chain of the IL-2R that, in concert with the β-chain and γ-chain, constitutes the complete IL-2R. CD25 contributes only to IL-2 binding affinity but not to the recruitment of signalling molecules. However, its importance in the development of a normal immune response is emphasized by the finding that a truncation mutant of CD25 results in an immunodeficiency in humans characterized by an increased susceptibility to viral, bacterial and fungal infections. In 1997, Sharfe et al. described an infant with severe bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Counts of autologous T lymphocytes were moderately low, T cells displayed a weak proliferative response to mitogens in vitro and the patient displayed no rejection of an allogeneic skin graft. However, unlike children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), besides not having circulating T cells, the patient also developed peripheral lymphocytic proliferation and autoimmune primary biliary cirrhosis. We present the first female Argentine patient with mutation in CD25 associated with chronic and severe inflammatory lung disease (follicular bronchiolitis with lymphocyte hyperplasia), eczema and infections. She has no expression of CD25 on CD4(+) T cells and an extremely low amount of Tregs . The molecular study confirmed homozygous missense mutation in the alpha subunit of the IL-2 receptor (CD25αR) (c. 122 a > c; p. Y41S). © 2013 British Society for Immunology.


L Bezrodnik, M S Caldirola, A G Seminario, I Moreira, M I Gaillard. Follicular bronchiolitis as phenotype associated with CD25 deficiency. Clinical and experimental immunology. 2014 Feb;175(2):227-34

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PMID: 24116927

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